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The Radicalization of Sunni Jihadist Groups and Their Development of a Total War Doctrine

ABSTRACT The essay presents this jihadi ideological evolution in four parts. Firstly, it provides an overview of jihadism’s three major adversaries the near (Muslim apostate), far (Western and other non-Muslim civilizations) and sectarian (Shi’ite and other heterodox Muslims) enemies. Secondly, the paper examines why jihadi groups prioritized attacks against the near enemy during the Cold War only to see most Islamist insurgencies beaten back by Muslim apostate regimes. Thirdly, the paper analyses how these failures invited debate within the jihadist movement leading to a refocus on fighting the non-Muslim far enemy. Fourthly, having failed to weaken near and far enemies, the paper argues that the global jihadi movement has radicalized further by resorting to conspiratorial and eschatological arguments that link near, far and sectarian enemies. Keywords: Jihad, Radicalization, Terrorism, Religious Warfare, and Extremism

Emotional Speech Perception in Prelingually and Postlingually Deaf Cochlear Implant Users: A Review

ABSTRACT Accurate and meaningful verbal communication between individuals requires the use of both emotional semantics and emotional prosody. When hearing is impaired, the auditory signal becomes degraded, making the perception of emotional prosody difficult. Such is the case with cochlear implants (CIs). Limitations of CI technology may cause diminished or lost cues of emotional speech. A degraded auditory signal, like the one experienced by individuals using CIs, affects the way individuals perceive multiple aspects of the speech signal, including emotional speech. The purpose of this brief review is to explain some of the difference between how prelingually deaf CI users and postlingually deaf CI users perceive emotional speech. Evidence shows that prelingually deaf CI users are able to produce suprasegmental aspects of speech, but have difficulties correctly identifying the emotional correlates of speech. Postlingually deaf CI users also have trouble identifying prosodic cues in speech when visual cues are removed. More research is needed to determine exactly how much of the subtle cues available in emotional speech is lost due to the technical limitations of the CI. More research is also needed to determine how accurately the CI user from both prelingual and postlingual groups interpret the messages they hear based on respective auditory cues and visual cues. Keywords: emotional speech, emotional prosody, speech perception, cochlear implant, prelingual deafness, postlingual deafness

THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES IN LANGUAGE SHIFT AND LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE IN A NEW MIGRANT COMMUNITY IN NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand has become a home to several linguistic groups over the years. Telugu language speakers are the recent migrants to New Zealand. Telugu is the fourth most spoken language in India with over 8 million having Telugu as their mother tongue. It is considered one of the fifteen most spoken languages in the world. Telugu speakers are a recent immigrant community to New Zealand, and their current number is estimated to be over 5000 and growing. The study examines the language loss and maintenance issues of the Telugu language speakers based in New Zealand. It investigates the language attitudes of mothers and children in the Telugu community and how they relate to the loss of the language in an English-speaking environment. The findings reveal that although most of the Telugu people speak their own community language at home, the children are rapidly losing their language. These results point out, being a new migrant community in New Zealand that places more emphasis on jobs and settlement, the community does not make any deliberate attempt to protect language skills. On the other hand, some mothers emphasise the English language on the hope that it would give their children an advantage in New Zealand, which is a predominantly English-speaking country. As a result, children are losing language skills rapidly, particularly their reading and writing skills. The findings call for urgent explicit steps for language maintenance if New Zealand were to thrive as a truly multicultural hub in the South Pacific region. Such an approach requires concerted efforts by families, community and government agencies. Keywords: Telugu language, migrant community, language shift, language maintenance, New Zealand.